Consequently people could not cook, build houses or find shelter. When God saw their suffering he added trees. The ecological and religious importance of trees from the earliest stages of human existence cannot be overestimated. According to Vandana Shiva: The protection and propagation of forests as a deeply ingrained civilizational characteristic in the South Asian region is evident from the existence of sacred groves in river catchments…and from village woodlots.
The practices were of critical value both ecologically and economically. Ecologically, indigenous and naturalized vegetation has provided essential life support by stabilizing the soil and water systems. Economically, trees have been a source of small timber, fodder, fuel, fibre, medicines, oils, dyes, etc. Indigenous medicines use more than 2, species of plants, both wild and cultivated.
The centrality of trees to survival and economic well-being created the need for their conservation which was achieved through the concept of sacredness. However, animal husbandry must be based on the movement of herds according to the seasonal availability of land for grazing. This meant that the successors of the earliest hunters and gatherers were nomads who relied on animals for transport and their products for food. Their mobility gave them little opportunity for attachment to sacred places; if resources became scarce they mounted their animals and moved elsewhere.
Eventually many of them began to settle. Settled cultivation involves a form of energy use in which human muscles are supplemented with fuelwood and animal and water power. Land must be cleared so that certain species of plant—wheat, rice and maize, for example— can be intensively cultivated.
Small kin groups are more viable in settled Ecology and Hindu tradition 19 cultivation than larger ones, with the result that families tend to become the basic units of agricultural societies. However, families need to band together for mutual support in villages, which become the larger functional units. Men plough, women tend plants, collect fuel and water, clean and grind grain and cook.
Forests, grazing ground and water are commonly owned by each village. Where villages have become part of larger territories there may be considerable division of labour and the emergence of specialized groups, such as priests, who are responsible for natural and cultural knowledge, and warriors, who protect the interests of the village or group of villages from outsiders. Agricultural societies occupy something of an intermediate position between hunters and nomads in their relationship with nature. On the one hand, unlike the hunters, they have established a firm measure of control over their surroundings; on the other, unlike the nomads, they cannot merely mount their horses and go elsewhere when nature becomes capricious.
They therefore appear to share with the hunters and gatherers a sense of being part of a community of life, and with the nomads a strong sense of their ability to control resources. According to Madhav Gadgil and Ramachandra Guha: The restrained use of natural resources could thereby be expected to form one part of the ideology of agricultural societies, especially when they are in a state of near equilibrium with their resource base. On the other hand, agricultural societies in the process of encountering an expanding resource base—either through new technologies or, especially, while colonizing lands earlier held by gatherers—are much more likely to view man as separate from nature and with a right to exploit resources as he wishes.
We considered one at the beginning of this chapter where Arjuna and Krishna, representing settled cultivators, destroyed a forest to provide more land. Another relates to the early history of the Mundas of Jharkand; it is known as the Asur legend. There is one supreme spirit, known as Singbonga, who created and sustains all things and various lesser spirits, many of which are ancestral. Each village is protected by Desauli Bonga, the spirit of the sacred grove.
According to the Asur legend, certain Asurs who were iron smelters burned their fires so persistently that vegetation was scorched, water supplies dried up and the air was polluted. This displeased Singbonga, who burned all the Asurs to death in a furnace. The women then complained that without their menfolk they could not survive. So Singbonga took the charred bones of the men from the furnace and scattered them all over the earth. Falling on mountains, rocks, deep waters and wooded places beside springs, the bones became bongas, or guardian spirits of those places.
Thus Singbonga resolved a conflict between a 20 Religion and Ecology in India and Southeast Asia settled tribe of cultivators who had resorted to environmentally unsound practices and the original inhabitants by restoring a truly symbiotic relationship between his people and nature. We have considered the earliest stages of history in relation to three modes of resource use and it is important to note that these may have to some extent coexisted. The fourth mode of energy use is industrial, and follows an extractive route whereby natural resources are mined e.
This mode did not occur until comparatively recently and will be considered later. Towards the end of the Pleistocene period c. The ability of the coastal belt of western India and the GangesYamuna region to support intensive agriculture depends on monsoon rains, which owe their existence to the juxtaposition of the Himalayas, the mountain ranges of peninsular India, the north and northwestern plains and the surrounding oceans.
From a geological point of view, however, the Himalayas are of comparatively recent origin and their upward movement is likely to have had a significant effect on past climates. The relationship of past climates to such major tectonic activity is highly complex. At present all that can be said is that these changes must have had profound and far reaching effects not only upon the mountain regions but upon the whole subcontinent. Factors such as these may have played a significant part in the rise and decline of the Indus civilization.
There is evidence that these settled cultivators used the plough or a similar instrument to increase their range of crops, with the result that agricultural surpluses enabled towns to flourish. New trades developed and the need to keep records led to the first attempts at literacy. The Indus city-dwellers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro appear to have been divided into social groups which included workmen, craftsmen, traders, priests and menials.
Damodar Kosambi claims that the more powerful social groups were able to induce people to part with their surplus cereal crops through a mixture of trade and religion, thus maintaining the status quo. Some of the seals show the male figure meditating in the position of a yogin, wearing a buffalo crown and surrounded by animals.
He has three faces, and in some representations a plant sprouts from between his horns. Similarities between this deity and others, such as those depicted on Elamite seals, have been discussed by Gavin Flood. The resultant urban society was a delicate balance of internal relations between cities, towns and villages, and of external relations with neighbouring peasant societies and more distant urban societies. The end of the Indus urban phase probably arose from some major upsetting of this balance. The early Vedic period The people who first spoke the Sanskrit language used the Vedas as their basis for religion and worshipped a group of male and female deities led by Indra.
They called themselves arya, i. Essentially patriarchal and pastoral tribespeople, the Aryans gradually expanded their sphere of influence eastwards into the Gangetic valley. They introduced new patterns of production with the result that small tribal groups and clans were drawn into a variety of different types of social organization. The first of these Samhitas, the Rk, gives the most comprehensive account of the Vedic deities: Indra who replaced the somewhat remote Varuna , Agni, Soma and many others. On its own it is usually referred to as the Rgveda. The Sama Samhitas Samaveda is much the same as the Rgveda.
The Yajus Samhitas Yajurveda has been transmitted in several recensions, the two main groups being known as the Black and White Yajurveda. The White Yajurveda includes the Satapatha Brahmana, which contains revealing information about the Aryan method of land-clearing: 22 Religion and Ecology in India and Southeast Asia Madhava, the Videgha, was at that time on the [river] Sarasvati.
Agni thence went burning along this earth towards the east; and Gotama Rahugana [the priest] and Videgha Madhava [the king] followed after him as he was burning along. He burnt all these rivers. Nowadays, however, there are many brahmins to the east of it. At that time it [the land east of the Sadanira] was very uncultivated, very marshy, because it had not been tasted by Agni Vaisvanara.
Nowadays, however, it is very much cultivated, for the brahmins have caused Agni to taste it through sacrifices. Even in late summer that [river] rages along; so cold is it, not having been burnt over by Agni Vaisvanara. Even now this [river] forms the boundary between the Kosalas and the Videghas; for these are the Madhavas. The Atharvaveda was eventually ranked equal to the other three Vedas. It contains some fine descriptions of the relationship between humans and nature: The earth, which possesses oceans, rivers and other sources of water and which gives us land to produce foodgrains and on which human beings depend for their survival—may it grant us all our needs for eating and drinking: water, milk, cereals and fruit.
To each of the four Vedas was attached a Brahmana, which commented on and explained the sacrificial rites. These were followed by Aranyakas, forest treatises in prose, and Upanishads, which interiorized the ritual. The Rgveda represents the earliest stages of the Aryan presence in north India. The main concern of the Aryans was with the performance of sacrificial ritual to secure material benefits such as health, possessions, victory and immortality. It was the bridge between the empirical world and the world of the gods.
As sacred fire, Agni occupied a special position with regard to the sacrifice. He was also the destroyer of forests and cities. It also released the rains, however, as the monsoon clouds curled upwards like a huge dragon waiting for Ecology and Hindu tradition 23 the first flash of lightning.
According to Kosambi, it destroyed the dams constructed by the Indus people, thereby unblocking the rivers. There is a type of monotheism sometimes called henotheism underlying the hymns in honour of them: I magnify Agni, the domestic priest, the divine minister of the sacrifice, best bestower of treasure.
I honour the holy light of the sun in the sky as the face of the divine. The waters contain all medicines. Bestow on us the best treasures: the efficient mind and inner lustre, the increase of wealth, the health of bodies, the sweetness of speech and the fullness of days. The original Vedic fire-priest was the atharvan and there were other sacrificial priests such as the hotr. These had their counterparts in Aryan societies outside India. It is interesting to note that for the correct performance of ritual during the early Vedic period it was essential for a wife to sacrifice with her husband.
Brahmins have no exact equivalent outside India; it is possible that they were the result of interaction between Aryan and Indus priests. There is some evidence for non-Aryan brahmins in the Rgveda and in much later tantric texts. The four-fold varna system, consisting of brahmin or Brahmana , ksatriya, vaisya and sudra, has been interpolated into the Rgveda in the context of the account of the sacrifice of the primordial man and it is only in the Yajurveda that it is fully developed.
In spite of its preoccupation with ritual, it contains some beautiful descriptions of nature: In spring the winds blow coolly like water, the rivers and ocean flow calmly and medicinal herbs are filled with sweet juice…In spring let trees give us sweet fruits, the sun physical strength and cows sweet milk. The omnipresent One is warp and woof to all created beings. They reveal the true nature of Brahman, the underlying unity and reality of all diversity, of our true self atman and of the inner relationship between them. That is reality.
That is atman. In the older Upanishads, such as the Brhad-aranyaka and the Chandogya, the early Vedic deities have become insignificant, but there is considerable speculation about how things came to be what they are. These Upanishads are full of reverence for the natural world, in which trees play an important part: Truly man is just like a tree. His hairs are the leaves and his skin resembles the natural bark. His blood streams forth out of his skin like the sap of a tree when he is cut…The flesh is comparable to wood, the sinews are like the inner bark, the bones are the inner core of the wood and the marrow resembles the pith of the tree.
If someone should strike at its middle, it would bleed Ecology and Hindu tradition 25 but still live. If someone should strike at its top it would bleed but still live. Being pervaded by atman it continues to stand, eagerly drinking in moisture and rejoicing…. If the life leaves the whole, the whole dries up. Thus the Svetasvatara invokes Isvara, the Supreme Lord: He who is the supreme Mighty Lord mahesvara of lords, who is the highest deity of deities, the supreme master of masters, transcendent, him let us know as God, the lord of the world, the adorable.
Souls atman, jiva and the world jagat, prakrti are united in the one Supreme Reality. The Upanishad echoes the outlook of some of the philosophical and religious schools prevailing at the time of its composition and tries to reconcile them. The considerable diversity within the Upanishads and Vedic literature generally led to the formation of a variety of exegetical schools. The schools of the Vedanta differed about the relationship between Brahman and atman, but agreed that the Upanishads are the authoritative source of knowledge about them.
However, the Purva Mimamsakas i. According to Julius Lipner: The Purva Mimamsaka emphasis on public religious ritual and its efficacy struck and reinforced an answering chord deep in Hindu minds… Though the performance of the solemn Vedic ritual on a large scale may have died down by about the sixteenth century, it was the original Purva Mimamsaka concern for ritual that stoked the continuing Hindu liturgical preoccupation with…incense and flowers, rites and ceremonies, both in the temple and in the home.
All else is remembered and secondary, smrti, though in practice some later literature such as the Bhagavadgita has come to be regarded by some as equivalent to sruti. Smrti is the cumulative tradition through which we hear the voice of sruti, and it includes certain Puranas which expatiate upon the youthful exploits of Krishna, among other things , the Ramayana and Mahabharata which contains the Bhagavadgita , the six philosophical perspectives known as darsanas 26 Religion and Ecology in India and Southeast Asia Samkhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisesika and the two Mimamsas, Purva and Uttara , the Agamas of the Saiva Siddhanta and the Vedantic commentaries of Samkara, Ramanuja and Madhva.
Samkara — CE was the founder of the most influential school of Vedanta, known as advaita non-dualism. Although he distinguishes between an empirical and an ultimate level of reality, it is important to recognize that the former is as real for him as we are ourselves. Lipner underlines this point as follows: The common supposition that Samkara taught that the world is an illusion is a much too superficial reading of his thought. For Samkara the world is as real as we are; only the fabric of worldly reality of which we are an integral part has no ultimate reality status…Like Hindu thinkers in general, he was careful to distinguish the cognitive scope of scripture from the cognitive scope of empirical experience.
Brahman is the supreme One and the universal cause who discloses the pre-existent Veda to Brahma, who reveals it to the Sages. Atman pervades our entire psychophysical being and mental activity is a reflection of the interaction between the two. When we die, both our corporeal body and our centre of mental activity are destroyed, but our linga sarira continues until it identifies an impending birth. The linga sarira is a prakrtic substrate sometimes called the subtle body, which is not susceptible to normal sense experiences. It contains our memory store and the accumulated karma of previous lives.
Surveys I carried out in the s indicate that many urban, scientifically educated Hindus no longer believe in rebirth. Thus, they say, it may not be literally true that rebirth takes place in order to expend accumulated karma, but this is a potent way of symbolizing the responsibilities that one generation of human beings bears in respect of succeeding generations. Current ecological sensitivities give point to this perception. Varna denotes the appearance or form of caste and varna dharma is the ordered hierarchical dharma of caste.
These are brahmacarya, the stage of the student of religious dharma; garhasthya, that of the householder; vanaprastha, that of the forest-dweller; and samnyasa, the stage of the renouncer. Although the majority of Hindus pay little attention to these, they remain a potent reminder of the importance of frugal living in harmony with nature. The post-Vedic period The Aryans who migrated from the Punjab to the east not later than BCE were very different from those who had arrived earlier c.
They continued to use chariots, horses and cattle, including the distinctive Indus humped cattle depicted on seals. They had the plough and a variety of skills such as pottery, carpentry and weaving. By the seventh century BCE the centre of Aryan domination had shifted from the Punjab to the Gangetic valley where Buddhism would soon begin to exert its influence. By BCE the Gangetic valley contained a variety of separate social groups in different stages of development. Aryan kingdoms vied and sometimes fought with one another for the best territories. The Mahabharata and Ramayana epics reflect the mood of this period.
The Ramayana, incidentally, maintains that women could perform domestic and certain other rituals in their own right. But even prior to the repressive Laws of Manu second century BCE or possibly later , a reaction had taken place, with the result that women were no longer allowed to recite the Vedas and had become a source of ritual pollution to men. It was composed by an adviser of the Mauryan king Candragupta and reflects among other things the advanced scientific and technical knowledge at that time. Mining, metallurgy, engineering, chemistry, medicine and botany all appear in this compendium, which also includes detailed instructions about the maintenance of forests: 28 Religion and Ecology in India and Southeast Asia On non-agricultural land…a forest should be made with a single entry.
Fruit trees, beautiful groves and attractive flowers should be planted. There should not be any trees of the [thorny] type. A small pond should be there. Deer and similar familiar animals should be there but the teeth and nails of hunting animals must be extracted. Elephants, both male and female, should be there and also children. The Arthasastra also inveighs against those who pollute public places, temples, ponds and rivers and prescribes corresponding punishments. The Arthasastra is distinctive in that it makes a clear separation between political and religious authority.
According to Lipner: There was to be no established religion, though this does not mean that in the course of history Hindu rulers did not try to favour or enforce a particular faith, even by means of persecution. On the whole, however, rulers have followed this directive, thus adding to the image of Hindu religious tolerance. This puts into perspective those Hindu religiously political forces today which seem to wish to act against the weight of history. Vedic society generally relied on grain and pastoral foodstuffs and only butter fats ghee were used in ritual.
Vegetable oil for cooking was known as taila, which is derived from sesamum tila. Although sesamum was known in pre-Aryan times, there are virtually no references to it in the Vedas, whereas the Arthasastra mentions the two words more than forty-five times. This may reflect changes from a pastoral to an agrarian economy. Throughout the period under consideration and well into the early centuries of the Common Era there were interactions between local belief systems and certain well-known Hindu gods.
Many spirits were identified with Siva or Isvara which are connected with male phallic worship and Parvati, the goddess of fertility. Other spirits were then associated with them: thus the worship of the spirit of an elephant became the worship of Ganesa, the elephant-headed son of Ecology and Hindu tradition 29 Siva and Parvati. Siva had already become associated with the pre-Vedic Pasupati, Lord of the Beasts. Siva himself rides Nandi, the bull, and is festooned with cobras; both these animals signify fertility. The names of the Hindu deities remained the same, but their functions may have changed considerably since their first appearance in religious literature.
Gadgil and Guha have drawn attention to the manner in which such role shifts on the part of the gods may have bearing on the use of natural resources: These distinctive local belief systems were now woven together into a composite fabric by identifying many of the spirits with a few key gods in the Hindu pantheon… This…had a clear role in regulating and moderating the use of natural resources. It legitimized in a new framework the protection accorded to certain elements of the landscape—for instance groves or ponds near temples, and protection to certain species such as Ficus religiosa peepal or Presbytis entellus the Hanuman langur as sacred to a variety of deities.
Some of these prescriptions may have been functional in resource conservation, others neutral or even malfunctional. However, identifying them with deities from the Hindu pantheon was an effective way of continuing these practices. A contemporary approach Although I have emphasized some of the naturalistic aspects of the Vedic tradition—and there are many more—it is important to recognize that these cannot be considered in isolation from the tradition as a whole. It has therefore been necessary, albeit in a very cursory manner, to indicate the major features of the Vedic corpus.
Within this totality there has been a tendency on the part of some scholars to overemphasize certain elements e. I further illustrate my thesis by summarizing the views of a contemporary Hindu scholar who believes that the Vedas have much to offer the promotion of ecological awareness.
Dr Karan Singh is a capable Sanskritist who has made independent translations of the Vedic texts; his publications are readily available in English and he has done a great deal to make successive Indian governments aware of the need for environmental legislation. I offer a brief account of the main tenets of the Hindu tradition as he summarizes them, including his concern for the natural world within this framework.
The first is that underlying the appearance of change and movement represented by samsara there exists the unchanging all-pervasive reality which is Brahman. The Mundaka Upanishad makes this clear: Brahman verily is this immortal being. In front is Brahman, behind is Brahman, To the right and to the left.
It spreads forth above and below. Verily, Brahman is this effulgent universe. Thus, despite the multitudinous manifestations of this space-time continuum, there is ultimately no dichotomy between the human and the divine. This is the third major Hindu tenet. Here Karan Singh utilizes the notion of karma, which on its own means action, in a purposeful and forward-looking manner: Karma can…be considered the moral equivalent of the law of conservation of energy or the equivalence of action and reaction in the Ecology and Hindu tradition 31 field of natural sciences.
While it is true that what we are today is the result of our past deeds, it also follows that we are the makers of our future by the way we act at present. Thus, far from implying fatalism as is often wrongly believed, karma gives tremendous responsibility to the individual and places in his own hands the key to his future destiny.
Naturally, the unerring law of karma can work itself out only over a sufficiently long period of time; therefore the Hindu belief in reincarnation. According to the Gita, niskama karma conventionally means that we must do our work for the benefit of others without considering any benefit for ourselves; rather, we must fix our minds solely on God. Karan Singh maintains that we must enlarge the conventional framework to include the welfare of all creation: Finally, there is the concept of welfare, not of any particular person or group or class, but of all creation. In addition to the horrors that mankind has perpetrated upon its own members, we have also indulged in a rapacious and ruthless exploitation of the natural environment.
Thousands of species have become extinct, millions of acres of forest and other natural habitat laid waste, the land and the air poisoned, the great oceans themselves, the earliest reservoirs of life, polluted beyond belief. And all this has happened because of a limited concept of welfare, an inability to grasp the essential unity of all things, a stubborn refusal to accept the earth not as a material object to be manipulated at will but as a shining, spiritual entity that has over billions of years nurtured consciousness up from the slime of the primeval ocean to where we are today.
Scholars such as Karan Singh may therefore be said to be enlarging the scope of the conventional anthropocentric world view to restore 32 Religion and Ecology in India and Southeast Asia cosmic terms of reference rather than modifying the tradition to take on board our contemporary environmental concerns. The distinction is an important one. In this chapter we have considered the early Hindu tradition from an ecological perspective.
We have acknowledged the numerous allusions to the beauty and regularity of nature and the parallels that exist between the natural world and the gods, setting these against changes in resource use as many of the earliest hunter-gatherers progressed via nomadic pastoralism towards settled cultivation. Whether one looks at the development of the Hindu tradition from the perspective of tribals and nomads, the Indus civilization or the Aryans who were responsible for the Vedic texts, considerable closeness exists between humans, the natural world and transcendent Reality God, the gods, the One, etc.
It is this closeness which encapsulates more than anything else the ecological relationship that once existed between human communities and their surroundings, and which must be rediscovered and combined with the scientific results of researches in a variety of environmental fields if we are to understand past cultures in their totality— to cite the Allchins. We noted parallels between the gods of the Indus Valley people and both human and agricultural fertility, and referred to a tribal legend which says that the unecological practices of the Asur iron smelters led to divine retribution, tempered only by the intervention of their womenfolk.
I summarized the unecological activities of Arjuna and Krishna in the Khandava forest in order to be realistic about the shortcomings of certain parts of the Hindu corpus, and challenged the view of some scholars that Samkara taught that the natural world is an illusion. I concluded the survey with a summary of the views of Karan Singh, a modern scholar whose essentially orthodox exposition of Vedanta acknowledges an ecological dimension of the Vedic scriptures which others have tended to ignore.
In the next chapter we shall see how other modern Hindus transformed the tradition imaginatively. Ecology and Hindu tradition 33 At the beginning of this chapter we encountered Krishna and Arjuna, racing around the blazing forest of Khandava in a chariot, killing the wildlife as it tries to escape. In due course Krishna reveals himself as the avatara of Vishnu: As God of all being and established in my creation, I take birth by my spiritual powers. For whenever dharma wanes…then do I generate an embodied self.
For the protection of the good and the destruction of evildoers, and for the establishing of right I take birth age after age. The Gita also sets out the path of morally purposeful and selfless action, which is niskama karma, selfless work without concern for reward and—as Karan Singh observes—to benefit the whole of creation.
The completed film began with the commentator standing on a stage in front of a large cut-out of the Mahatma, explaining what an important film this was going to be. As he left the stage his microphone flex caught around the base of the effigy, which fell flat on its face. The camera swung round to show the auditorium, empty but for two small children sitting on the same chair. Malcolm Muggeridge made this film at the same time as his better known study of Mother Teresa.
In particular, the Gandhian notion of sarvodaya, with its participative village communities living in harmony with their surroundings, is increasingly acknowledged as preferable to the urban and industrial sprawls of modern India. However, the contemporary socio-political and ideological milieu of India is unintelligible without some understanding of the forces which shaped the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and to these we must now turn. In the following sections we shall study modern India from the point of view of the changing perceptions that occurred of the relationship between natural resources and society as market forces became dominant.
I shall describe scientific and other influences which entered India from the West and were instrumental in causing major social and religious reforms, noting in particular the manner in which these were taken up by reformers such as Swami Vivekananda. Finally, we shall consider a group of outstanding scientists whose researches were shaped by their Hindu beliefs. Among them, Jagadish Chandra Bose investigated the possibility of pain in plants because he believed that from the perspective of Vedanta the boundaries between biology and botany must ultimately disappear.
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Extracting resources Whereas hunters, nomads and settled cultivators either relied on human muscle and energy from fuelwood, or augmented human power with animal and water power, the industrial mode of energy use both harnessed and mined natural resources for human consumption. It therefore followed an extractive pattern of resource use which has depleted natural resources during the past years more severely than anything that preceded them.
The ecological changes that occurred in India during the industrial period were to a large extent a consequence of events in Europe. Technological advances made it possible to turn a wide range of objects into commodities which could be sold for profit. Thus wood, which in preindustrial times was used primarily for domestic fuel and shelter, could be transformed into paper or burnt as fuel for transportation.
As supplies of such raw materials became scarcer and scarcer, the colonizing Europeans looked further and further afield in order to supplement them. This meant that people who had traditionally enjoyed free access to forests could no longer depend on them for their essential biomass needs.
With these changes came the breakdown of cooperatives and local community initiatives, to be replaced by entrepreneurs who exercised considerable monopolies. The market therefore reigned supreme. According to Gadgil and Guha: With manufacturing and commerce the dominant activities, markets became the focal point for organizing access to resources. This new beliefsystem that developed therefore transferred to the institution of the market the veneration reserved for spirits resident in trees by food-gatherers, and in an abstract God by Christian food-producers.
Success and status were now clearly measured in terms of money, the currency of the market. Even where forests were eventually replaced, the trees that were planted were mainly those of commercial value. In the Himalayas, for example, mixed forests of conifers and broad-leaved species well suited to filtering and regulating rainwater were replaced with a single strain of commercially valuable conifers.
The extractive path of energy usage took an 36 Religion and Ecology in India and Southeast Asia enormous toll of forest ecosystems and progressively marginalized their largely tribal inhabitants. Women, the traditional collectors of fuelwood, were the worst affected: The worst sufferers are women who have traditionally been dealing with the resource. Their workload increased…Women have to travel the extra distance to collect food, fuel and fodder. Older women and children who used to help the housewife until then are unable to do so any more. Consequently, the housewife is forced to work more than in the past, to collect less food…Besides, she is deprived of the medicinal herbs, the allopathic health centres in towns are far from the village, and are open only during the day when she has to be working in the village.
Moreover, because of the additional workload, even pregnant women are forced to keep working till a week before childbirth…[The] consequence is deterioration both of her nutritional and health status more than that of men. Dietrich Brandis, inspector-general of forests in Madras now Chennai , advocated the restricted take-over of forests by the state, justifying his view in terms of a mixture of traditional equity and efficiency.
These were accompanied by a wide range of European notions which were to a large extent shaped by the scientific and rational ideas of the Renaissance. The net result was that India experienced a social and cultural reformation far more extensive and irreversible than anything that had preceded it. The Reformers The potency of the ideas that entered India from the West was largely due to the fact that they were presented not as closed, dogmatic systems of thought, but as universal ideas in a secular framework in the English language.
They were assimilated by the better educated and more affluent sections of Indian society, especially in the north, and it was from these echelons that most of the significant social, religious and political reformers were drawn. Oxford: Blackwell, London: Blackwell, French version English draft.
Hershberg eds. Knutsen, G. Westing ed. Non-refereed journal articles. XII, No. Reports and working papers. Book reviews. Kwon, Heonik, The Other Cold War. Diplomatic History , forthcoming. Barnett, Louise, New York: Routledge. American Historical Review , forthcoming. Jennings, Eric T. Imperial Heights. Dalat and the Making and Undoing of French Indochina. H-Diplo Roundtable Review , Vol. XIII, No. Slater, Dan, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Robert Cribb, Digital Atlas of Indonesian History. Copenhagen: NIAS.
H-Net Reviews , August Anthony Reid, Imperial Alchemy. Nationalism and Political Identity in Southeast Asia. Donati, Caroline, Nordhaus, William, Le nouvel art de la guerre [The New Art of War]. Fravel, M. Taylor, Macmillan, Margaret, Smith, Ralph B. Pre-Communist Indochina. London: Routledge and Smith, Ralph B.
Communist Indochina. Oslo: U-forlaget, , in Apollon , No. Iver Neumann, Norge - en kritikk. Begrepsmakt i Europa-debatten. Elisabeth Eide and Rune Ottosen, eds, Krigens retorikk. Medier, myter og konflikter etter Jonathan D. Andrew S. Thomas H. Henriksen ed. Michael D.
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Michael A. A History since , in Nyt fra historien 2, Colin Mackerras ed. Pauwels, Anne 'Managing and maintaining minority languages in the era of globalisation: Challenges for Europe and Australia. Contadini, Anna 'The Manuscript as a Whole. Text and Image in Illustrated Arabic Manuscripts. Vergara-Camus, Leandro 'Marcos, Subcomandante. Gilbert, C. Amsterdam: Elsevier. Palmer, Michael 'Mediation in China. Leiden: Sage Publications. Breen, John 'Meiji tenno o yomu. Kodansha, pp. Gore, Charles 'Modernisms in Africa. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, pp. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Press.
Saad Filho, Alfredo and Iannini, F. Banda, Fareda 'New rights for women. London: Africa Research Institute, p. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers, pp. Annual Review of Law and Ethics. Band Nottingham: Critical, Cultural and Communication Press. London: Saqi Books, pp. Chicago: Chicago Linguistics Society, pp. London: Institute of Education, pp. Toporowski, Jan and Levy Orlik, N. The Mexican Experience. Oxford: Routledge.
London: I B Tauris, pp. Kolkata: T Media Publications. Basingstoke: Taylor and Francis, pp. Tuebingen: Mohr-Siebeck, pp. Duffy, Rosaleen 'Peace parks and global politics: the paradoxes and challenges of global governance. Martinez, Dolores 'Pilgrimage and experience: an afterword. London: Routledge, UK. London: Sussex Academic Press. New York; London: Routledge. Routledge Studies in Human Geography. Merrey, Douglas J. State, Democracy and Conciliation in Historical Perspective. Richmond: I. Pierson, Stacey 'Porcelain. London: Thames and Hudson, pp. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press, pp.
Karshenas, Massoud 'Poverty and Growth in least developed countries: Some measurement and conceptual issues. New York: Routledge, pp. Routledge Frontiers of Political Economy Series. Kapstein, Matthew and Dotson, Brandon 'Preface. Leiden: Brill, vi-xii. Achcar, Gilbert 'Preface. Dorward, Andrew and Kydd, Jonathan and Poulton, Colin 'Price intervention in Sub-Saharan African agriculture: can an institutionalist view alter our conception of the costs and benefits? Dortrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Papers dedicated to Ernst Steinkellner on the occasion of his 70th birthday.
Howard, Keith 'Professional Music: Instrumental. Music of Korea. Cornell University Press, pp. London: IB Taurus, pp. Taipei:: Lexue shuju, pp. Kumar, Sunil 'Raziyya, Sultan. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. History, Theory, and Empirical Evidence. Karshenas, Massoud 'Real exchange rates, labour markets and manufacturing exports in a global perspective. Routledge Frontiers of Political Economy. Nikolaeva, Irina 'Recipriocals and sociatives in Udehe. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. Hawthorne, Sian M. Castillo, G. Hees, S. Schenefeld Hamburg : EB-Verlag, pp.
Chan, Stephen 'Robert Gabriel Mugabe. Creskill, N. London: Third Millennium. Bir Muhalif Kimlik. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. Clarence-Smith, William 'Scientific and technological interchanges between the Islamic world and Europe, c. Prato: Le Monnier, pp. New York, NY: W. A Critical Approach. Martinez, Dolores 'Seven samurai and six women: Kurosawa's Shichinin samurai. Duffy, Rosaleen 'Shadow states: globalisation, criminalisation and environmental change.
Paris: Karthala, pp. Gourgey, Percy and Parfitt, Tudor 'Singapore. Nairobi, Kenya and Oxford, England: Fahamu, pp. Branfoot, Crispin 'South Asia and the Himalayas. London: SOAS, pp. Easton, Kai 'Southern Africa. Routledge Companions. New York: Springer, pp. Farnham: Ashgate, pp. Kirsch, Griseldis 'Spiritual Healing in China? Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, pp. Bernstein, Henry 'Structural adjustment and African agriculture: A retrospect. Development, Poverty, Hegemony. Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde. Jenkins, Catherine 'Taking Apology Seriously. Antwerpen: Intersentia, pp.
Series on transitional justice, 1. Nickel, Lukas 'The Terracotta Army. London: British Museum, pp. West Lafayette, Ind. Berenskoetter, Felix 'Thinking about Power. London; New York: Routledge, pp. Dudweiler, Germany: Pirrot, pp. Osei-Nyame Jnr. Palmer, Michael 'Towards a Greener China? Bond, Oliver 'Towards a canon for negation. Standish, Isolde 'Transgression and the Politics of Porn. Oshima Nagisa's In the Realm of the Senses Parfitt, Tudor 'Tribal Jews.
New York: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. Parfitt, Tudor 'Tutsi. Cambridge: Cambridge Institute of Language Research, pp. Bucharest: Tritonic.
SAGE Reference - Archipelagic Southeast Asia
Detroit: Greenhaven, pp. Beijing: Sanlian shudian, pp. Haigh, Matthew 'What counts in social managed investments: evidence from an international survey. Advances in public interest accounting. London: I B Tauris. The decline of traditional social identities. Hartung, Jan-Peter 'Wider die Schmach. Eine historisch-anthropologische Untersuchung von "Beleidigung" in einigen muslimischen Kontexten. I: Historische Anthropologie. Schenefeld: EB-Verlag, pp.
Oxon, New York: Routledge-Cavendish. New Delhi: Routledge India. New Delhi: Pencraft International, pp. New Orientations. London: Hurst, pp. Parfitt, Tudor 'Zakhor. Mezzadri, Alessandra 'The limitation of corporate social responsibility in the Indian garment sector: a case study from the Delhi industrial area at the end of the Multi Fibre Agreement. Emmerick memorial volume. Large, Daniel 'The political economy of oil in Sudan: exacerbating conflict, undermining peace?
Norwegian Council on Africa. Yaqin, Amina 'The role of family and gender in Rushdie's writing. Cambridge University Press, pp. Tokyo: Jinbun. Hewitt, George 'Abkhaz comparatives. Novak, Paolo 'Accountability to Whom? Murinde, Victor 'Accounting, banking and corporate financial management in emerging economies. Bernstein, Henry and Woodhouse, Phil 'Africa: eco-populist utopias and micro- capitalist realities. Hill, Nathan W. Chan, Stephen 'Back to the Future — a new Zimbabwe. Sims-Williams, Nicholas 'A Bactrian quarrel.
List of Contributors
Sreberny, Annabelle and Khiabany, G. Lindley, Anna and Pieke, F. Hutt, Michael 'Bhupi Sherchan: from schoolboy to Sarvahara. Chan, Stephen 'Breakthrough in Kariba. Goodhand, Jonathan and Sedra, M. Driver, Ciaran 'Capital Crimes. McGill, Stuart 'The Cicipu noun class system. The Grammatical Encoding of the Causee. Beck, Gunnar 'Common law reasoning as ordinary reasoning in extraordinary language. Prasad, S. Posri, Wilatsana and Shankar, Bhavani and Chadbunchachai, Supatra 'Consumer attitudes towards and willingness to pay for pesticide residue limit compliant 'safe' vegetables in Northeast Thailand.
Blankenburg, Stephanie and Plesch, Dan 'Corporate rights and responsibilities: restoring legal accountability. Reid, Richard 'Defining Frontiers: violence and identity in nineteenth-century Eritrea. Neue Serie Groom, Benjamin and Koundouri, P. Menski, Werner 'Dodgy Asians or dodgy laws? The story of H. Lensink, Robert and Murinde, Victor 'Does foreign bank entry really stimulate gross domestic investment?
Zene, Cosimo 'Don et vendetta en Sardaigne. Fine, Ben and Milonakis, D. Beck, Gunnar 'The ECJ judgment in Cadman, the state of Community anti-discrimination law, and how the legal becomes the political. Frye, Bultmann and the Problem of Demythologizing. Dotson, Brandon '"Emperor" Mu rug btsan and the 'Phang thang ma. Continuities in governance in late colonial and early post-colonial East Africa. Hegemony in Occupied Japan. Balcombe, K. Adcock, C. Chan, Stephen 'Fanon. Chan, Stephen 'Farewell Robert Mugabe. Rabinovich, Anna and Webley, Paul 'Filling the gap between planning and doing: psychological factors involved in the successful implementation of saving intention.
Jinjarak, Yothin 'Foreign direct investment and macroeconomic risk. An Intimate Reframing of the International. Ingham, Bruce 'Function of the independent personal pronouns in Lakota. Groom, Benjamin and Hepburn, C. Duffy, Rosaleen 'Gemstone Mining in Madagascar: transnational networks, criminalisation and global integration. Liu, Jieyu 'Gender dynamics and redundancy in urban China. George, Andrew 'The Gilgamesh epic at Ugarit.
Moore, Elizabeth and Win, S. Selwyn, Tom and Roberts, L. Pauwels, Anne and Winter, Joanne 'House husbands and part-time mothers: The politics of naming reform in the gendered spheres of home and work. Green, Christopher J. Higson, A. Scaramozzino, Pasquale and Marini, G. Reyes, Raquel A.
Article 5. Clarence-Smith, William 'Islam and the abolition of slavery. Shihadeh, Ayman and Suleiman, Y. Marsden, Magnus 'Islam, emotion and authority in northern Pakistan. Article 3. Sriram, Chandra 'Justice as Peace? Liberal Peacebuilding and Strategies of Transitional Justice. Schwemer, Daniel 'KUB 4. Mollinga, Peter 'Learning and unlearning in water resources management history in South Asia: the cases of irrigation and flood control.
Water and Better Human Life in the Future. November , Kyoto. Johnston, Deborah and Le Roux, H. Hsiao, Mark 'Legal infrastructure of Chinese banking credit derivatives trading leading to securitisation. McIlroy, David H. Chan, Stephen 'Letters from Washington. Ubinadamu baina ya Tamaduni. Salffner, Sophie 'Living with water scarcity. A tale from Africa. Lockyer, Angus 'The Logic of Spectacle c. Marsden, Magnus 'Love and elopement in northern Pakistan.
Sumner, A. Adcock, Chris 'Measuring portfolio performance using a modified measure of risk. Urban, Frauke and Benders, R. Li, Defeng and Cheng, M. Marten, Lutz and Kula, Nancy C. Osella, Caroline and Osella, F. Tribe, Tania 'Narrative in the Harlem Renaissance. A Case Study from Kenya. Chan, Stephen 'Nietzsche in Harare. Scaramozzino, Pasquale and Dalmazzo, A.
Okell, John 'Obituary - Dr. U Hla Pe The Politics of Gender and Reconstruction in Afghanistan.
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Robb, Peter 'On the Rebellion of A Brief History of an Idea. Chan, Stephen 'Palestine Film Festival. Marten, Lutz and Kula, C. Feminist Media , Menski, Werner F 'Patient judicial activism. Howard, Keith 'Performing Ethnomusicology. Klein, Richard J. Baltzer, Markus and Kling, Gerhard 'Predictability of future economic growth and the credibility of monetary regimes in Germany, Heller, Kevin 'Prosecutor v. Karemera et al. Klein, Jakob A. Adib-Moghaddam, Arshin 'Reflections on the emerging political economy of Iran. Adamson, Fiona B.
Hobart, Mark 'Rethinking Balinese Dance. Reid, Richard 'Revisiting Primitive War: perceptions of violence and race in history. Zene, Cosimo 'S'Imbiatu. Gift and Community in Central Sardinia. Selwyn, Tom 'Sei unser Gast. Black, Richard 'Should governments encourage migration? Verbs of Cutting and Breaking in Jalonke. Fine, Ben 'Social Capital. Simpson, Edward 'State of play six years after Gujarat earthquake. Part I. Inkster, Ian 'Technology in World history: cultures of constraint and innovation, emulation and technology transfers. Austin, P and Margetts, A.