Manual Physics of Quantum Well Devices

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Quantum well

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The Density of states in a Quantum well Structure

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USA - Quantum well semiconductor laser - Google Patents

Practical aspects and up-to-date developments and applications of the devices are also covered. This book should be of interest to researchers and specialists in the field of Solid State Technology and Optics and Optoelectronics. It can also serve as a textbook for graduate students and new entrants in the exciting field of quantum electronics.

Read more Read less. No customer reviews. As bias is increased from zero across the RTD, the current increases and then decreases, corresponding to off, on, and off states. Double-layer tunneling transistor: The Deltt , otherwise known as the Double-layer tunneling transistor is constructed of a pair of conductive wells separated by an insulator or high band gap semiconductor. Figure below The wells are so thin that electrons are confined to two dimensions. These are known as quantum wells. A pair of these quantum wells are insulated by a thin GaAlAs, high band gap does not easily conduct layer.

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Electrons can tunnel through the insulating layer if the electrons in the two quantum wells have the same momentum and energy. The wells are so thin that the electron may be treated as a wave— the quantum mechanical duality of particles and waves. The top and optional bottom control gates may be adjusted to equalize the energy levels resonance of the electrons to allow conduction from source to drain. The bars would be at the same level in the energy level diagram. If gate bias is increased beyond that required for tunneling, the energy levels in the quantum wells no longer match, tunneling is inhibited, source to drain current decreases.

To summarize, increasing gate bias from zero results in on, off, on conditions. Power supply voltage is about mV. Room temperature versions are expected. The insulator layers must be thin compared to the de Broglie electron wavelength, for quantum tunneling to be possible. For diode action, there must be a preferred tunneling direction, resulting in a sharp bend in the diode forward characteristic curve. However, thermal electrons cannot flow due to the high I1 and I2 barriers. Electrons may pass through insulator I1 if M1 is based at the same energy level as the quantum well.

A simple explanation is that the distance through the insulators is shorter. A longer explanation is that as bias increases, the probability of the electron wave overlapping from M1 to the quantum well increases. For a more detailed explanation see Phiar Corp. MIIM devices operate at higher frequencies 3. Quantum dot transistor: An isolated conductor may take on a charge, measured in coulombs for large objects. For a nano-scale isolated conductor known as a quantum dot , the charge is measured in electrons. A quantum dot of 1- to 3-nm may take on an incremental charge of a single electron.

This is the basis of the quantum dot transistor , also known as a single electron transistor. A quantum dot placed atop a thin insulator over an electron rich source is known as a single electron box. Figure below a The energy required to transfer an electron is related to the size of the dot and the number of electrons already on the dot. A gate electrode above the quantum dot can adjust the energy level of the dot so that quantum mechanical tunneling of an electron as a wave from the source through the insulator is possible.

Figure below b Thus, a single electron may tunnel to the dot. If the quantum dot is surrounded by a tunnel barrier and embedded between the source and drain of a conventional FET, as in Figure above c , the charge on the dot can modulate the flow of electrons from source to drain.

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As gate voltage increases, the source to drain current increases, up to a point. A further increase in gate voltage decreases drain current. This is similar to the behavior of the RTD and Deltt resonant devices. Only one kind of transistor is required to build a complementary logic gate. Single electron transistor: If a pair of conductors, superconductors, or semiconductors are separated by a pair of tunnel barriers insulator , surrounding a tiny conductive island, like a quantum dot, the flow of a single charge a Cooper pair for superconductors may be controlled by a gate.

This is a single electron transistor similar to Figure above c. Increasing the positive charge on the gate, allows an electron to tunnel to the island.

Available student project - Quantum-well nanowire light emitting devices

If it is sufficiently small, the low capacitance will cause the dot potential to rise substantially due to the single electron. No more electrons can tunnel to the island due the electron charge. This is known at the coulomb blockade. The electron which tunneled to the island, can tunnel to the drain. Single electron transistors operate at near absolute zero. The exception is the graphene single electron transistor, having a graphene island. They are all experimental devices. Graphene transistor: Graphite, an allotrope of carbon, does not have the rigid interlocking crystalline structure of diamond.

None the less, it has a crystalline structure— one atom thick, a so called two-dimensional structure. A graphite is a three-dimensional crystal. However, it cleaves into thin sheets. Experimenters, taking this to the extreme, produce micron sized specks as thin as a single atom known as graphene. Figure below a These membranes have unique electronic properties. Highly conductive, conduction is by either electrons or holes, without doping of any kind.

Graphene sheets may be cut into transistor structures by lithographic techniques. A gate capacitively coupled to a graphene channel controls conduction. As silicon transistors scale to smaller sizes, leakage increases along with power dissipation.

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And they get smaller every couple of years. Graphene transistors dissipate little power. And, they switch at high speed.

Graphene might be a replacement for silicon someday. Graphene can be fashioned into devices as small as sixty atoms wide. Graphene quantum dots within a transistor this small serve as single electron transistors. Previous single electron transistors fashioned from either superconductors or conventional semiconductors operate near absolute zero. Graphene single electron transistors uniquely function at room temperature.

Graphene transistors are laboratory curiosities at this time.

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If they are to go into production two decades from now, graphene wafers must be produced. The first step, production of graphene by chemical vapor deposition CVD has been accomplished on an experimental scale. Though, no wafers are available to date. Carbon nanotube transistor: If a 2-D sheet of graphene is rolled, the resulting 1-D structure is known as a carbon nanotube.